Monarch butterfly populations are in trouble. They’ve been declining for years because milkweed and wildflower populations have been eradicated as land management practices have changed.
Areas that used to be wild and teeming with milkweed are now becoming urban and suburban developments, or are being cleared for agricultural use. More widespread use of pesticides and herbicides also threaten these vibrant orange butterflies.
The importance of milkweed for monarch butterflies
Milkweed is essential to the monarch because this plant is the butterfly’s nursery. They only lay their eggs on milkweed, and in turn, milkweed protects the butterfly throughout its life cycle.
Milkweed leaves are the only source of food for a newly emerged monarch caterpillar. These leaves contain substances called cardenolides that are poisonous to birds and other vertebrates. (That includes humans and pets, so never eat milkweed, and wash the sticky sap off of hands immediately.)
As the caterpillars eat the leaves, this toxin helps to protect the caterpillar and butterfly from predators.
Monarchs need more than milkweed to survive. Unlike the caterpillar, adult butterflies get their nutrition from a variety of plant nectars. Just as milkweed is in decline, so are wildflowers and other nectar-producing plants.
The good news is, you can be part of the solution to the reduction in monarch populations by planting milkweed and lots of flowers for these beautiful butterflies.
Contributing to a pollinator-friendly garden
A pollinator-friendly garden is a great start, or maybe a wildflower garden. They love zinnias, cosmos, lantana, butterfly bush, and many other beautiful and colorful flowers that will make your yard lovely.
And of course, make sure any milkweed you purchase is appropriate for your area so that it grows well. Making sure you are growing appropriate milkweed also helps the monarch to migrate properly.
The butterflies use the plants as landmarks or clues about where they should be during different times of the year.
Milkweed growing tips
Growing milkweed is easy, but a few tips can help you get the most out of each package of seed. Milkweed is slow to germinate, so cold-stratifying the seeds is a great idea. Simply sprinkle seeds onto a moist paper towel, fold the towel, and insert it into a plastic bag. Place the bag in a refrigerator for 2-4 weeks.
After that, sow seeds indoors in a warm and bright location. Milkweed needs light to germinate, so barely cover the seeds with no more than ¼” soil. Keep your seeds moist until they sprout, but do not overwater. When all danger of frost is past, harden your seedlings off and transplant outside.
Thank you for helping monarchs. Talk your friends into planting gardens with lots of flowers, including milkweed! The more habitat, the better.
These important butterflies are beautiful, and they’re also an essential part of the North American ecosystem. It’s worth the effort to do what we can to help them survive.